Procedure: The participants were given one schema at the encoding stage and one schema at the retrieval stage, to see if they were influenced. In a later study, Anderson and Pichert () presented evidence for the effect of reader perspective on retrieval processes. Subjects who shifted to the alternate. Key Study: Anderson and Pichert () Aim: To investigate if schema processing influences both encoding and retrievalMethod: Highly controlled l.
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They are mental representations of categories from our knowledge, beliefs and expectations about particular aspects of the world such as people, objects, events, and situations.
Scripts provide information about the sequence of events that occur in particular contexts e. Americans, Egyptians, women, accountants, etc.
Information we already know affects the way we interpret new information and events and how we store it in our memory. It is not possible to see how knowledge is processed and stored in the brain, but ad concept of schema theory helps psychologists understand and discuss what cannot be seen. Schema theory can describe how specific knowledge is organised and stored in memory so that it can be retrieved.
State what you are doing in the essay Schema theory will be evaluated, making an appraisal by weighing up strengths and limitations with some reference to studies on the effect of schema on memory.
Schema theory provides the theoretical basis for the studies reported below. Bartlett aimed to determine how social and cultural factors influence schemas and hence can lead to memory distortions.
Recovering Forgotten Information: a Study in Consumer Expertise by Elizabeth J. Cowley
Participants used were of pichhert English background. Tested their memory of the story using serial reproduction and repeated reproduction, where they were asked to recall it six or seven times over various retention intervals. Their reproductions occur between time intervals from 15 minutes to as long as several years.
Both methods lead to similar results. As the number of reproductions increased, the story became shorter and there were more changes to the story. He found that recalled stories were distorted and altered in various ways making it more conventional and acceptable to their own cultural perspective rationalization. It also contributes to understanding of cognitive distortions in memory.
To investigate if schema processing influences encoding and retrieval. Half amd participants were given the schema of a burglar and the other half was given the schema of a potential house-buyer. Participants then heard a story which was based on 72 points, previously rated by a group of people based on their pichsrt to a potential house-buyer leaky roof, damp basement or a burglar 10speed bike, colour TV.
Participants performed a distraction task for 12 minutes, before recall was tested. After another 5 minute delay, half of the participants were given the switched schema. Participants with burglar schema were given house-buyer schema and vice versa. The other half of the participants kept the same schema.
Participants read a story from the perspective of either a burglar or potential home buyer. After they had recalled as much as they could of the story from the perspective they had been given, they were shifted to the alternative perspective schema and were asked to recall the story again. The group who kept the same schema did not recall as many ideas in the second testing. Research also showed that people encoded different information which was irrelevant to their prevailing schema those who ane buyer schema at encoding were able to recall burglar information when the schema was changed, and vice versa.
On the second recall, participants recalled andersoh information that was important only to the second perspective or schema than they had done on the first anserson.
Anderson and Pichert 1978
Schema processing has an influence at the encoding and retrieval stage, as new schema influenced recall at the retrieval stage. Strength of schema theorythere is research evidence to support it. Another study demonstrating schema theory is by Brewer and Treyens To see whether a stereotypical schema of an office would affect memory recall of an office. Participants were taken into a university student office and left for 35 seconds before being taken to another room.
They were anr to write down as much as they could remember from the office. They did not recall the wine and picnic basket that were in the office. Participants’ schema of an office influenced their memory of it.
Our schemas influence what we recall in our memory. Strength of schema theory — there is many types of research evidence to support it.
Anderson and Pichert – Unit 2 – Cognitive psychology – Stuvia
A further study demonstrating schematic influence is by French and Richards To investigate the schemata influence on memory retrieval. In the study there were three conditions: Participants were shown a clock with roman numerals and asked ans draw from memory. The same procedure, except the participants were told beforehand that they would be required to draw the clock from memory.
The clock was left in full view of the participants and just had to draw it. In the first two conditions, the participants reverted to the conventional Andersln notation, whereas in the third condition, the IIII notation, because of the direct copy.
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French and Richards explained this result in terms of schematic knowledge of roman numerals affecting memory retrieval. The findings supported the idea that subjects in the copy condition were more likely than subjects in other conditions to draw the clock without invoking schematic knowledge of Roman numerals.
Summary of evaluation of schema theory: Define strengths of schema theory: Supported by lots of research to suggest schemas affect memory processes knowledge, both in a positive and negative sense. Through supporting studies, schema theory was demonstrated in its usefulness for understanding how memory is categorized, how inferences are made, how stories are interpreted, memory distortions and social cognition. Define weaknesses of schema theory: The concept of a schema is too vague to be useful.
Schema theory does not show how schemas are required.
It is not clear which develops first, the schema to interpret the experiences or vice versa. Schema theory explains how new information is categorised according to existing knowledge.
But it does not account for completely new information that cannot link with existing knowledge. Therefore, it does not explain how new information is organised in early life E. 19788 conclusion, strengths of schema theory: It has contributed largely to our understanding of mental processes.
But the theory requires further research and refinements to overcome its limitations and uncover its unclear aspects. IB Guides why fail?
The biological level of analysis General learning outcomes GLO1: Outline principles that define Explain how principles that de Discuss how and why particular Physiology and Behaviour PB1: Explain one study related to l Using one or more examples, ex Discuss two effects of the env Examine one interaction betwee Discuss the use of brain imagi Pichhert and Behaviour GB1: With reference to relevant to Examine one evolutionary expla The cognitive level of analysis General learning outcomes GLO1: Evaluate schema theory with re Evaluate two models or theorie Explain how biological factors Discuss how social or cultural With reference to relevant res Discuss the use of technology Cognition and Emotion CE1: To what extent do cognitive an Evaluate one theory of how emo The sociocultural level of analysis General learning outcomes GLO1: Describe the role of situation Discuss two errors in attribut Evaluate social identity theor 9178 the formation of stere Explain picert learning theory Discuss the use of compliance Evaluate research on conformit Evaluate schema theory with reference to research studies.