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Sus cometidos principales fueron: Pertinencia de los objetivos. Impactos sobre la pobreza. Su mayor importancia radica no tanto en el monto de recursos captados por ejemplo: Sin embargo, no se tomaron medidas adecuadas para reforzar estos aspectos por ejemplo: Lo anterior no quiere decir que el financiamiento externo en volumen mayor hubiera sido inoportuno. Las cajas rurales han mostrado ampliamente que su modelo funciona en ausencia de una estructura externa de incentivos.
Tal oportunidad, sin embargo, vale la pena. Sobre acciones a nivel gubernamental: The evaluation also served the purpose of accountability of IFAD to its governing bodies. Methodologies utilised included field-level questionnaires, focus group discussions, interviews with key informants and direct observation of some benfhmarking project sites.
The main thrusts of IFAD’s Strategic Framework in the country are equitable access to natural resources, finances and markets, and the strengthening of grassroots institutions. This has been achieved against radical structural shifts: The project was declared effective in December benchmarkiing closed on 30 June after an extension of one year.
The main goal of the project was to reduce the chronic food shortages among benchmarikng people – households – living in the 34 poorest townships of the five poorest counties in the mountainous area of southwest Anhui reingeneria.
The provision of micro credit for poor households constituted the main instrument for implementation. The Anhui Department of Agriculture was the chief implementing agency, reingenieroa the control of the Ministry of Agriculture in Beijing.
The management and delivery of credit funds was to be handled by the existing Rural Credit Cooperatives RCCs at township level, the first instance in China of this innovative approach. A new institution, the Village Implementation Group VIGwas created to promote and supervise village-level activities.
In terms of physical achievements, around 16 reingneieria of land was improved or put under new or rehabilitated cultivation, km of roads were built or upgraded, 1 gravity tanks and wells were constructed for drinking water, km of irrigation canals, irrigation ponds and over km of flood protection barriers were built, all of which matched or exceeded the physical targets planned at appraisal.
This arrangement was accepted by the People’s Bank of China, which regulates cooperatives, and by the supervision missions. Training programmes had a budget of nearly USD 2. Bench,arking of the training materials and methods were found to be inappropriate for the illiterate and semi-literate. The WFP food-for-training acted as an effective incentive for attendance at the training sessions. Project objectives were relevant to the causes of poverty in the project area, namely a shortage of cultivable land, low yields, lack of infrastructure, limited access to markets and poor levels of education, literacy and reingeieria, especially among women.
The response of the PMOs was that in an area where virtually all households were poor, the example e,powerment more active and resourceful households would have the desired multiplicative effect.
The prescribed monitoring and reporting systems were scrupulously followed but the Project Completion Report acknowledged some weaknesses: Management reibgenieria were far lower than comparable projects, a mere 2. The major recurrent costs including salaries and transportation, as well as the reingenieeria and maintenance of buildings and offices, were met from existing government budgets. The commendable decision to maintain previous levels of government support in the project area meant that the operation of the SWAIADP constituted a genuine addition, rather than a partial replacement.
Plots are managed individually and the loans made to individual households, but the overall execution of the schemes was managed by officials. Instead of the mosaic of small plots with a variety of crops envisaged at appraisal, larger areas of monoculture have been established. The system was commended by UNOPS consultants and the Evaluation Mission was impressed by the efficient utilisation of scarce land resources. The PMOs claim the recovery rate will gradually improve, but the only available sanction is the refusal of further loans.
The signs of increased prosperity were apparent everywhere: Rice, soybean, maize, mulberry, tea and chestnut plantations, wherever located, look uniformly healthy and productive.
Nearly 5 ha of poor and unusable land has been improved by levelling, soil replacement and drainage, with areas of waste land transformed into highly productive orchards. Per capita income and grain availability have been the main impact indicators utilised by the project. The average increases by county were From one mu 2 of tea, a household can generate an income of Y 2 p.
Chestnuts were a successful option for households with a shortage of labour capacity, since the trees need only minimal tending.
Determining the extent of food insecurity is hampered by the lack of recent official records, which were abandoned as food became freely available at markets.
Income and grain availability figures deal in overall averages, which behchmarking increase due to large gains made by the better-off. Overall grain availability rose from kg per person per year to kg during project life according to Benchmarjing figures, kg being the approximate yearly requirement in China for an adult with an average workload.
There is of course inequality in terms of food availability, but no household met by the Mission, even the poorest, was unable to afford daily meals.
Further, household diets were richer in protein and fresh vegetables. Project officials stated that their greatest problem in the early days was the suspicion and hostility among all but the most progressive households to the notion of borrowing. In all villages visited by the Mission, project-funded loans were found to be familiar and sought after, and bencjmarking disciplines of loan management and repayment had become part of everyday life.
Particular importance was given to women signing for loans for mulberry cultivation, silkworm raising, animal husbandry, primary tea processing and other IGAs. This may not have been an appropriate emphasis in the case of southwest Anhui. Questions on this subject provoked an emphatic response rreingenieria men and women alike: Many loans signed by husbands were in fact utilised by women.
Rural Credit Cooperatives have benefited from the project credit operation, mostly without risk to themselves. Their deposits have increased, their clientele base has been broadened and their capacities in terms of loan approval and recovery have been enhanced. They are now aware of the potential of small loans made to poor people, provided the costs are covered by the interest charged.
The question mark hanging over the RCCs is whether they now have the capacity to carry out credit delivery, loan approval and recovery and to bear the credit risk in line with the original design.
The feeling among the PMOs is clearly that the first responsibility of non-governmental cooperative institutions such as the RCCs will be to their members, and their primary empowermet will be profitability. The Mission did not see a single trace of deforestation or soil erosion in all areas visited. An extraordinary degree of care is taken in the terracing and cultivation of the slopes. Soybeans are grown on terrace verges for maximum utilisation of the soil and the prevention of erosion.
In fruit orchards, mulch is commonly used for moisture retention. All maize, mulberry and tea crops are grown at reasonable density to maximize benefits and minimize surface run-off water. Field-to-forest conversion is subsidised.
Benchmagking women have been key participants in project activities. Their income from mulberry and silkworms, from tea cultivation and primary processing, from chestnuts and improved livestock breeds average at more than Y 2 p. Health awareness and disease prevention have improved.
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In terms of workload, women told the Mission they are busier than before, and content that it should be so in view of their increased income.
Greater awareness of disease, hygiene and nutrition was reported by women participants in healthcare classes. The declining incidence of gynaecological diseases is indicated by township data and confirmed by doctors, and staff of the Women’s Federation.
The consumption of meat, eggs, fresh empowetment and edible oils has greatly increased according to household interviews. Innovations of the project include: IFAD can be commended reinenieria an intelligent project design, the boldness of the new approach to credit delivery and the strong personal support of the then Country Portfolio Manager, mentioned by staff at all levels.
It can be criticised for the lack of an initial benchmarkinng of RCC capacities, which might have given advance warning of the problems in that sphere. In addition, the counties commonly requested more autonomy concerning the stipulations as to areas and outputs of new or expanded cultivation and the lifting of the Y 3 ceiling for loans. UNOPS fielded six supervision missions, reingnieria first two of which were longer in the field, visited all five counties and produced more detailed and objective reports.
The PMOs recommended a greater technical expertise in the membership of Supervision Missions, but generally appreciated the collaboration. The outsourcinh review was critical regarding the targeting of the poorest, inappropriate training bnechmarking illiterate farmers and inadequate support for women’s IGAs. The provincial level PMO was the nerve-centre of the project. The contacts between administrative levels are frequent and the managerial ethos is marked by enthusiasm and frankness.
PMO leaders at county level have a strong sense of ownership of the project. The Mission visited 12 out of 34 townships, where informative reports were presented and even bbenchmarking questions answered without confusion or hesitation.
As for the VIGs, the Mission’s initial doubts as to whether the necessary capacities existed at this level proved unfounded. As co-financiers, the WFP took a close interest in the project and its supervision.
The management of the food aid was effectively organised and losses in transit kept to a minimal level. Where the necessary degree of homogeneity and benchmarjing cohesion exists in villages, inclusion of all households is to be preferred.
Microcredit lent to the poorest households should have more favourable conditions attached, outsourcingg as longer terms and a greater number of instalments. Saturation in the markets for raw silk and tea may pose a risk to the economic sustainability of project interventions.
The diversification of income must be seen as an ongoing process sensitive to market needs and changes and as requiring further support, notably through appropriate training programmes for agricultural extension officers and ready access to market information for producers. The training offered to women has not always been appropriate to their educational level and needs. Data on the incidence of disease is not effectively utilised. Healthcare workers should submit the results of medical check-ups to the township PMOs who, with the assistance of the hospitals, can investigate the causes of high rates of disease in particular villages and tailor the healthcare training accordingly.
The baseline survey was over-complicated. The questionnaire ran to many pages and included superfluous data. Perhaps as a corollary of this, the sample of households in all was too small to be representative. For comparable IFAD projects in the future, a shorter questionnaire and a larger sample is recommended.
Simultaneous in-country approval of the AWPBs for ongoing projects should be mooted to ensure a more participatory consideration of the AWPB by all parties simultaneously, as well as the outsuorcing of the process.
Mr Flemming Nichols, then OE Evaluation Officer, was overall responsible for this evaluation and joined the mission in its reingeniefia week in the field. This evaluation adopts the standardized IFAD methodological framework for project evaluations.
IFAD has projects in each of them: