Grounded in naturally-occurring language data and drawing on findings from linguistic pragmatics and social psychology, Jonathan Culpeper. Politeness and Impoliteness Jonathan Culpeper (Lancaster University) 1. Introduction Thirty or so years ago politeness was a specialist, even somewhat. Impoliteness strategies. Jonathan Culpeper. Uploaded by. Jonathan Culpeper. Loading Preview. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. You can download the .

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It will be welcomed by students and researchers in linguistics and social psychology in particular.

Impoliteness Although the study of impoliteness has a fairly long history usually in the guise of the study of swearing, an example being Montagu [] and although early scientific attempts to address the topic e. The most heinous crime when performing an analysis of impoliteness strategies, or politeness for that matter, is to simply count them up on the assumption that if the strategy is there, it necessarily is performing impoliteness.

Scollon and Scollon ; Craig et al ; Tracy ; Lim and Bowers argue that, because positive and negative politeness are different in type, they cannot be ranked unidimensionally. Reconsidering claims for universality.

Politeness and Impoliteness | Jonathan Culpeper –

Journal of Pragmatics 34 5: For example, the rights and obligations, the presence of a third party, formality or mood may be important. Note that the Politeness Principle is not confined to dealing with impolite beliefs.

Face is an image of self delineated in terms of approved social attributes. For somebody who has been invited to dinner in England, politeness might include remembering to use please when you want something passed, complimenting the cook on the food and definitely not burping. Loss of Face is associated with the perception by others that one has not comprehended and acknowledged the structure and hierarchy of the group. Escandell-Vidal ; Jary ; Christie Great flow of spirits, sir.


Face-threatening acts are redressed with apologies for interfering or transgressing, with linguistic and non- linguistic deference, with hedges on the illocutionary force of the act, with impersonalizing mechanisms such as passives that distance S and H from the act, and with other softening mechanisms that give the addressee an “out”, a face- saving line of escape permitting him to feel that his response is not coerced.

Types and functions of impolite utterances. Journal of Politeness Research 3 7: Recent “relational” approaches to politeness, to be reviewed in section 2. This feature seems to be similar to Haugh’s point that evidence of politeness can be found in, amongst other things, culpepre reciprocation of concern evident in the adjacent placement of expressions of concern relevant to the norms in both in that particular interaction” b: Whatever the case, as a whole, Locher and Watts’s approach is not purely discursive.

So, what might a purely discursive approach to politeness look like? It is not used by anybody to impoliiteness, or in any context, and when impolitensss is used, it is generally considered interpersonally positive. Research on social context has now moved on, leading to paradigm shifts across the social sciences. Impoliteness and power in language. FTAssuch as asking somebody to do something for you, but also involves potentially “polite” acts Leech a: A sea of mess.

Discourse and Society 12 4: He examines not only its forms and functions but also people’s understandings of it in both public and private contexts. The starting point of pragmatics is primarily in language: Negotiating norms of linguistic behaviour.

Impoliteness strategies | Jonathan Culpeper –

Still, it cannot be denied that impoliteness phenomena are intimately connected with politeness. The speaker’s face threatening intention can be worked out by means of an inference triggered by the flouting of a maxim. Terkourafi, in contrast, argues that, whilst politeness can involve full inferencing in a nonce context, what lies at its heart is a generalised implicature of the first type given above.


More specifically, I analysed manuals on and parodies of rudeness. Instrumental rudeness as pragmatic competence.


The impoliteness strategies proposed in Culpeper Bourdieu, Pierre Language and Symbolic Power. Elinor Ochs Keenan and Tina L. Human Communication Research 25 2: It remains for future research to apply the frame-based approach to other contexts.

Few politeness studies have adopted this approach but see the notable example of Piirainen-Marsh Moreover, the fact that sarcasm trades impoljteness politeness is further evidence of this relationship. The use of strategies designed to redress the addressee’s negative face wants.

This is the final draft submitted, but it may have very minor errors and infelicities. Please tends to be used in relatively formal situations, and in impkliteness letters and written notices.

For example, amusing impoiteness is an interpersonal activity that is generally viewed positively, but it is not at all clear that it would normally be considered a matter of politeness. Politeness can also be conveyed without deviations from the Cooperative Principle. In brief, she proposes that there are two rules of pragmatic competence, one being ‘be clear’, which is formalised in terms of Grice’s Cooperative Principle, and the other being ‘be polite’, which is formalised in terms of a Politeness Principle.

In Spencer-Oatey”relational face” is added. Taking the informant as the target, the utterance “come on Joe lets go outside” seems to have no relevance at all imploiteness her: Locher ; Locher and Watts embrace the relational approach, which I shall discuss shortly. However, I am not convinced that face easily accommodates all politeness-relevant positive beliefs.