Put test bomb to water bath in °F temperature during 2 hours. Compare copper plat of the test result with ASTM standard colour. ➢ Terner Diagram Making. interpret, pseudo ternary phase diagram is often constructed to find the different zones including microemulsion zone, in which each corner of. View Lab Report – BUNDELAN from MATH AND S A33 at State A. Title of Experiment Three Component System Diagram Phase of Ternary System JURNAL EXPERIMANT KOEFISIEN ; State University of.
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Published on Apr View 9 Download 1. Procedia Engineering 97 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This study investigates how the microstructure and mechanical properties of different section size vary before and after heat treatment and aging processes.
Aluminium ingot is siagram using a furnace and poured in to the mold having mold cavities of varying dimensions. Cast components are heat treated as per ASTM standard B at a temperature of C for 12 hours followed by a temperature of for 5 hours.
In order to investigate the effect of heat treatment and aging processes microstructure and mechanical properties such as impact strength, hardness, and tensile strength were analysed as-cast condition ternee after heat treatment and aging process.
Aluminium A alloy, ternrr, impact strength, hardness, tensile strength, metal casting, heat treatment, and aging. Introduction Cast A aluminum alloy is widely used diagra, automotive and aircraft industries because of their excellent properties like high strength to weight ratio, low density, high corrosion rates etc. The terned properties can determine by controlling the microstructures of the alloys.
For designing any part we should have a thorough understanding of solidifications at different cross sections of the cast part and its influence on the mechanical properties [, 3]. Most applications of A alloy dependent on mechanical properties, so the performance of this alloy has been the subject of many micro-mechanical investigations.
Mechanical properties were improved with grain refinement. Since the mechanical properties are mainly dependent on their microstructure, a lot of efforts have been done for refining microstructure of casting to improve the mechanical properties of aluminum alloy A Refinement can achieve by using power ultrasound and electromagnetic stirring and equal channel angular pressing, or accumulative roll bonding.
As-cast A alloys are made up of coarse primary -Al dendrites and acicular-shaped eutectic silicon, which lowers the mechanical properties and limits its industry diagrm. Heat treatment and aging are important to homogenize -Al dendrites in aluminum alloys so we can achieve better mechanical properties. Cooling rate of mold is jurnall by introducing a thermocouple inside the mold .
Heat treatment and aging processes are the most important processes determining casting microstructure and mechanical properties [1- 2, 12]. The mechanical properties can determine by controlling the microstructures of the alloys . Heat treatment and aging are important processes to homogenize -Al dendrites in aluminium alloys . Experimental method Experimental apparatus consisting of four green sand molds with mold cavities of 20 mm, 40 fiagram, 60 mm, 80 mm diameters section sizes.
A aluminum alloy is melted using muffle furnace and poured to the molds. Thermocouple tip is placed 1mm diaagram from mold cavity in order to avoid damage of contact tip and temperature is monitored till there is a decrease in temperature after an initial increment. Temperature is measured using a K type thermocouple.
Review Jurnal 1_Mardiansyah Pratama(1406533094), Triana Yusman(1406533081)
Temperature-Time graph were plotted for all experiments and cooling rate for each sections were measured. Cast specimens were heat treated to ASTM standard B at a temperature of C for 12 hours and followed by an aging of 5 hours. Testing In order to investigate the effect of heat treatment and aging process on microstructure and mechanical properties, impact strength, hardness and tensile strength were measured for as-cast condition, heat treated and aged condition.
Specimens were prepared for microstructural analysis by polishing on disc polisher followed etching with diluted hydrofluoric acid.
Microstructural analysis was performed by an inverted metallurgical microscope and the microstructures were compared. Average grain size is measured using Metal Vision software.
Using an impact testing machine jutnal IT30 both impact tests Izod test and Charpy test jurnak performed for as cast condition and heat treated and aged condition. Cast specimens were machined to ASTM standard E8M with a gauge length of 45mm and gauge diameter of 9mm for tensile test. Tensile test were performed on universal tensile testing equipment diagrxm ultimate tensile stress value for as-cast condition and after heat treated and tegner condition were compared. Hardness test were performed with Vickers hardness tester by applying a load of kgf for 20 second both as cast condition and after heat treated condition.
All tests were repeated 5 times in both as-cast and aged and heat treated condition. Results and discussion 4. Effect of section size on cooling rate Fig. Time taken to decrease in temperature for 20 mm, 40 mm, 60 mm, 80 mm, sections were 15 minutes, 22 minutes, 27 minutes, 31 minutes respectively. From the graph it is found that increasing the section size lead to reduction of cooling rate or increase in solidification time. Cooling Curves of cast components with varying section size 4.
Microstructure evaluation a b b d Fig. Change in microstructureof as cast specimens digaram variation in section size Magnification X a 20 mm, b 40 mm, c 60 mm, d 80 mm Fig. As-cast condition microstructure is found fine for small section size and coarse for large section size yerner is due to grain refinement of smaller section size caused by fast cooling rate.
Microstructure is found much refined and uniform in all section size for heat treated and aged condition. As-cast condition average grain size was found to be 0. It shows an increase in average grain size with increasing section size due to reduction in cooling rate. Average grain size for heat treated and aged condition was found to be 0.
November ~ Material Science
At heat treated and aged condition average grain size is much less compared to as-cast condition but it is almost constant with variation in section size. Changes in microstructure of heat treated and aged cast specimens with variation in section size Magnification X a 20 mm, b 40 mm, c 60 mm, d 80 mm Fig. Variation in Grain size with section size. Jurna, test evaluation Fig.
As-cast condition impact strength in Charpy test is found It indicates that as-cast condition impact strength increase with reduction in section size.
This is due to grain refinement in smaller section size caused by fast cooling rate. Heat treated and aged condition impact strength in Charpy ternef is found Impact strength at heat treated and aged conditions were improved comparing as cast condition but it is almost constant with variation in section size. This is due to much higher grain refinement in heat treated and aged condition irrespective to section size.
Tensile test evaluation Fig. As-cast condition Ultimate Tensile Stress is found It is found that as-cast condition Ultimate Tensile Juenal is increased with reduction in cast component section size.
Heat kurnal and aged condition Ultimate Tensile Stress is found Ultimate tensile strength at heat treated and aged condition was improved compared to as-cast condition but it is almost constant with variation in section size.
Variation in Ultimate tensile stress with section size 4. Hardness test evaluation Fig. As-cast condition Micro hardness is found It indicates that Micro hardness of as-cast components increases as section size decreases.
Heat treated and aged condition hardness is found Heat treated and aged condition hardness was improved compared to as-cast condition but it is almost constant with variation in section size. Variation in Hardness with section size K. Conclusion As-cast condition Mechanical properties such as impact strength from Heat treated and aged condition mechanical properties such as impact strength, ultimate tensile stress, hardness were further improved but it is almost constant with variation in section size.
This is due to further grain refinement in heat treated and aged sections irrespective to section size. Hassan Mohammed, Effect of mold types and cooling rate on mechanical properties of Al alloy within ceramic additives, The 2nd International conference on Energy engineering, ICEE-2, Tata, Cooling rate inference in aluminium alloy squeeze casting, Materials Letters, 6 Moemeni, Effect of copper and solidification conditions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AlSiMg alloys, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Properties, Microstructure and Processing, Zheng, The quench sensitivity of cast Al7 wt.
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Jhrnal Mater Trans, 27 Uggowitzer, On the silicon spheroidization in AlSi alloys. J Light Metals, 2 What are the condition for obtaining substitutional and interstitial solid solution?
Terjadi jika zat pelarut atau atom mayoritas dalam pola-pola geometris digantikan posisinya oleh zat terlarut. Sebagai contoh atom tembaga menggantikan posisi atom-atom nikel tanpa mengganggu struktur pola geometris nikel itu sendiri.
Syarat terjadinya Substitutional solid solution adalah: Atom zat pelarut tidak digantikan posisinya oleh atom zat terlarut, tapi atom zat terlarut mengisi ruang di celah-celah diantara atom-atom zat pelarut.
Syarat terjadinya Intertitial solid solution adalah: Descibe the major features of a phase diagram! The major feature of a phase diagram: Dalam sistem biner, suhu biasanya ordinat dan komposisi absis. Dalam sistem paduan, tekanan biasanya dianggap konstan, meskipun mungkin diperlakukan sebagai variabel tambahan.
Phase boundaries or lines of equilibrium: What do the term equilibrium and constitutional as applied to phase diagram, indicate? Yaitu Sebuah kondisi dinamis keseimbangan antara gerakan atom, di mana resultan adalah nol dan kondisi tampaknya menjadi salah satu perhentian daripada perubahan. Why are they significant in precipitation hardening? Yaitu suatu endapan yang tidak larut pada reaksi produk padat ionik, terbentuk ketika kation dan anion tertentu bergabung dalam larutan cair.
Faktor yang menentukan pembentukan endapan dapat bervariasi.
Endapan ini diperlukan untuk meningkatkan kekuatan struktur dari suatu bahan sebagai yang memberikan ketahanan suhu, dalam hal ini pula endapan junal dengan mengatur suhu untuk mendapat kan hal-hal tersebut. Tekniknya adalah dengan mendispersikan secara seragam partikel kecil dari suatu fasa selain fasa asal ke dalam matriks dari fasa asal.